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Agricultural finance generally means studying, examining and analyzing the
financial aspects pertaining to farm business, which is the core sector of India.
The financial aspects include money matters relating to production of agricultural
products and their disposal. Agricultural finance as an economic study of borrowing funds
by farmers, the organization and operation of farm lending agencies and of society`s
interest in credit for agriculture. In this notes covered Introduction of agricultural Finance, Credit needs in Agriculture, Credit Analysis, Five Cs of credit, Seven Ps of credit, Repayment plans, Recent trends in Agricultural finance, Lead Bank Scheme, Crop Loan System, Schemes for financing weaker sections, Crop Insurance, Co-operation etc.
The term structure refers to something that has organization and dimension – shape, size
and design; and which is evolved for the purpose of performing a function. In this notes covered Farm management, Economic principles applied to the organization of farm business, Cost Principle, Law of Equi-marginal returns, Type of farming, Farm planning, Farm budgeting, Distinction between risk and uncertainty, Agricultural Production Economics, Law of Resource productivity etc.
This notes covered Introduction to Microbiology, Germ Theory of Diseases, Protection Against Infection, Review of Bacterial Cell Structure, Bacterial Growth, Heterotrophy, Fermentation, Chemoautotrophy, Phototrophy, Bacteriophages, Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles, Bacterial Genetics, Fluctuation Test of Luria and Delbruck, Types of Mutations, Genetic Recombination, Gene Expression in Bacteria, Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Phosphorus Cycle, Sulphur Cycle, Water Microbiology, Microbiology of Food, Microbial Spoilage of Foods, Food Preservation, Industrial Microbiology, Microbial Insecticides, Microbial Bio control, Biodegradation etc.
The organization is owned by an experienced Botanist Dr. Updesh Purohit, a plant physiologist with his vast experience in this field of plant sciences, which initiated him to publish authentic literature for scientists and farmers.
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of agriculture and biology. The journal publishes original scientific papers, short communications, review articles and case studies.
Biochemistry, as the name implies, is the chemistry of living organisms. It
has its origin in chemistry and biology. It tries to explain life processes at
molecular level. There is a basic unity of biochemistry throughout nature.
Although different organisms differ outwardly in their life processes, there are
striking similarities in executing different tasks. Genetic code, metabolic
pathways, enzymes, coenzymes and even regulatory mechanisms are similar to
a large extent in all the living organisms. Living organisms have certain
extraordinary properties. Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Protein Metabolism, Lipids etc. discussed in this notes.
Plant breeding can be defined “as an art and science” and technology of improving the
genetic make up of plants in relation to their economic use for the man kind. This notes covered Introduction, Cereals, Millets, Sugarcane, Pulses, Oilseeds, Fibre crops, Vegetables, Flower crops, Fruit crops, Plant genetic resources, Ideotype breeding, Breeding for resistance to biotic stresses, Breeding for abiotic stresses, Genotype, environment and their interaction etc.
Central Agricultural Research Institute intend to provide a research base to conduct the productivity of important agri-horticulture, livestock and fisheries of Andaman, to build appropriate plans for conservation of natural resources and their long term usage.
Central Agricultural Research Institute falls under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
Moreover, this particular institute also standardizes technologies for animal health coverage and also standardizes the techniques for capture and culture fisheries including coastal aquaculture.
The Institute started functioning in 1976 in a small building provided by Punjabrao
Krishi Vidyapeetb (PKV) but later on was shifted to rented buildings in the Nagpur city. The Institute was provided with two farms on lease by PKV at Phutala and State Department of Agriculture, Maharashtra State, at Panjri. From a modest beginning the Institute has expanded considerably in terms of
infrastructure and human resource development at all the three centres viz. Nagpur,
Coimbatore and Sirsa. A multi-disciplinary (Breeding and fibre technology, Soil Science, Agronomy and
Physiology, Entomology and Plant Pathology) and multi-location approach was
envisaged to realize these objective quickly.
The Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT) situated at Mumbai. CIRCOT was established in the year 1924, at Mumbai, Maharashtra, CIRCOT is a unit under the Division of Agricultural Engineering of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India) engaged in research and development activities in cotton technology. The Institute is an acknowledged leader for well over 85 years in the field of testing, standardisation and development of test methods for different types of textile materials.
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering was established on Feb. 15, 1976 during the Fifth Five Year Plan to address research issues related to Agricultural Engineering. Initially, research and developement work related to farm machinery, post harvest technology and energy in agriculture, were taken up. Keeping with functional utility, the divisions at the Institute were reorganized and two additional divisions namely Agro Industrial Extension and Instrumentation were created during VII plan. The divisions were further reorganized and an additional division of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering was created.
The Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET) was established on 29 December 1989 at the PAU Campus, Ludhiana, Punjab, India as a nodal institute to undertake lead researches in the area of the post-harvest engineering and technology appropriate to agricultural production catchment and agro-industries.
The institute’s second campus was established on 19 March 1993 at Abohar, Punjab, India. Which is primarily responsible for conducting research and development activities on fruits and vegetables, and commercial horticultural crops. CIPHET is also headquarters for two All India Coordinated Research Projects (AICRPs) viz. AICRP on Post-Harvest Technology (PHT) at 38 Centres and AICRP on Applications of Plastics in Agriculture (APA) at 11 Centre's.
Potato research in India formally began on April 1, 1935 with the opening of a Potato Breeding Station at Shimla and two seed production farms at Bhowali(Kumaon hills, UP) and Kufri (Shimla hills,HP) as a part of the Indian(then Imperial) Agricultural Research Institute, Delhi. In 1945, a scheme for establishment of a Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI) was drawn up under the guidance of the then Agricultural Advisor to the Govt. of India, Sir Herbert Steward. Dr S Ramanujam, who was then working as an Economist Botanist at IARI was appointed as an Officer on Special Duty for implementing the scheme in 1946. It took more than three years for the scheme to attain concrete shape in the form of the Central Potato Research Institute at Patna in August, 1949. The Government of Bihar provided a 10 ha piece of land with an old single storey barrack-type building.
This is a national research institute, with a focus on rainfed agriculture. The Institute is a constituent organisation of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India and was established in 1985. The Institute works closely with State Agricultural Universities (SAUs), thro` projects in dryland agriculture (AICRPDA) and Agrometeorology (AICRPAM) with centres located at different research stations of SAUs. CRIDA acts as main lead centre for a network project on climate change with partners from ICAR research institutes and universities.
The CRRI is one of the Institutes of the ICAR under the Division of Crop Sciences. The Institute has two research stations- Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station (CRURRS), Hazaribagh, in Jharkhand, and the Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station (RRLRRS), Gerua, in Assam. These research stations were established to tackle the problems of rainfed uplands, and flood prone rainfed lowlands, respectively.
Central Soil and Water Conservation Reasearch and Training Institute was established in 1974 at 218, Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun (Uttarakhand). The institute undertakes many programmes like Erosion control, Waste/degraded land development, Rain water management, Watershed management, Training in soil and water conservation and watershed management etc.
The Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI), a part of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) system, was established in 1969 as a follow up to the recommendations of an Indo-American expert group on water management. About 7.3 million hectares of India’s land area is afflicted with the twin problems of alkalinity and salinity coupled with Waterlogging, which seriously reduce agricultural productivity and has grave implications for our food security system. CSSRI researches therefore focus on reclamation and sustainable management of salt affected soils and on the rational use of poor quality waters in agriculture. The research programmes are implemented through four divisions; Soil and Crop Management, Crop Improvement, Irrigation and Drainage Engineering and Technology Evaluation and Transfer. Besides the main campus at Zarifa veeran village, Kachhwa Road, Karnal (Haryana), the institute has three regional stations i.e. at Canning Town (West Bengal) for research on problems of coastal salinity, at Bharuch (Gujarat) for salinity problems of black soil region and at Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh) for research on Gangetic alluvial sodic lands. In addition, the co-ordinating unit of an All India Coordinated Research Project on “Management of Salt Affected Soils and Use of Saline Water in Agriculture” is also located at Karnal and a network of its research centres are in operation in different agro-ecological regions.
Central Tobacco Research Institute, an organization of Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), is an apex research body for tobacco in India. Multi disciplinary programmes of CTRI have helped in evolving high yielding cultivars of tobacco, quality up gradation thereby improving the farmers' economics & enhancing tobacco exports.
The Centre for Development Studies (CDS) is an autonomous research institute. Its main objective is to promote research, teaching and training in disciplines relevant to development. Established in 1971 by the noted economist Professor K.N. Raj, it is considered to be one of the foremost development economics research centers in the country.
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